By Dr. Vivek Arya
Rama - The Role Model
Recently issue of Ramsetu is in vogue. Government filed an affadavit before supreme court stating that Rama has never existed on this earth. However, on strong opposition by other political parties and Hindu activist they withdrew the affadavit. Hindu organizations like Vishwa Hindu Parishad etc claim that question relating to existence of Rama cannot be simply resolved by scientific or historical findings.
Existence of Rama is basically a question of faith for millions of people. Therefore no Government can deny existence of Rama. But these greatest advocates of Hindusim did not show guts to take on Government/Karunanidhi and prove that Rama is as historical fact and not a myth.
Neverthless , they got support from an unexpected quarter i.e Hurriyat conference from Kashmir. Hurriayat also claimed that scientific or historical evidence are not yardstick to judge various issues related to religion.
Hence, whether Rama existed or not cannot be decided on base of scientific or historical findings. This is basically associated with religious sentiments of millions of people therefore government interference is unwanted.
In the mean time some of the scientists, based on astronomical data, have propounded that Rama existed around 5044 BC. In such a perplexing situation it becomes very difficult for common masses to arrive at any conclusive view regarding the existence of Rama. Hence, before deriving any conlusions we have to first analyse various facts regarding Rama and his epic Ramayana.
This article will put forth various facts which will help in resolving the issue of Rama's existence and will strongly conclude that Rama was an historical Mahanayaka and not any mythological character.
WHO WAS RAMA:-
Maharishi Valmiki wanted to write an historical epic which can act as guiding principle for future generations. He was in dilemma over this issue. When he consulted Narada Muni, Narada Muni then suggested Valmiki to write about Rama, son of Dasratha who was born in the clan of Raghu. Here one should remember that Valmiki wrote Ramayana long after the period of Rama . This facts goes contrary to the prevalent legend that Valmiki wrote Ramayana before Rama was born. This fact has been very well stated in Valmiki's Ramayana.
Similarly Mahakavi Kalidas wrote Raghuvansham. This books throws light on lineage of Raghu and also states various kings who ruled after Rama. So, now the point of argument is that if Rama was a mythological character then how could Valmiki provide history of forefathers of Rama ?
Whereas in Raghuvansham Kalidasa has provided details of forefathers of Rama and his various Santatis(successor) who ruled after him. In present times various books dealing with stories of Rama are prevalent in India and around the world. We will throw light on this issue in the latter part of this article.
WHEN WAS RAMA BORN:-(based on Valmiki's Ramayana)
The burning topic in present times is, when was Rama born ?
Before dwelling on this point, first of all we have to understand that our great Maharishies has systematically divided period of shristi in Manvantars. Each Manvantar is furthur divided into chaturyugis. Each chaturyugis consist of Krita(satyuga), traita, dwapar and kaliyuga. Present Manvantar is Vaivast Manvantar. Already 27 chaturyugies of this Manvantar have passed. This is the 28th chaturyugi and first charan (period) of this chaturyugi is in continuation.
It is well known fact that Rama was born during the latter part of traita. Hence, if we assume that Rama was born in the present chaturyugi then it means he was born at least 10,00,000 years ago. The period of his birth may be more than this.
However, Vayu purana provide us the correct chronological period of Ramayana. If we take Vayu purana period into consideration then period of Rama goes to atleast 1,80,00,000 years back. Hence we can easily conclude that period of Rama is atleast 10,00,000 years to 1,80,00,000 years (this issue will be resolved in another topic "Blunders of Indian History") .
This view is also supported by the fact that when Hanuman went to Lanka in search of Sita, there he saw elephants having four teeth. Hence this is now for archeiologist/biologist to ascertain when did such elephants exist on earth ? (The calculations of chaturyugies will be dealt in another topic "Age of present shristi", whereas difficulties encountered in establishing chronological correctness of historical events for period before Christ will be dealt in "blunders of history").
Another interesting fact that has been mentioned in Valmiki Ramayana is that the paternal home of Bharat and Shatrughan was in a country where mode of transportation was vehicle being carried by dogs or deer. When both the brothers returned to Ayodhya from their maternal home they crossed many places covered by snow and were wearing wollen clothes. Which place does this episode points to has to be ascertained.
By our logic it is Russia, as phonetically Russia sounds like misnomer of Rishi (this has been established in our article blunder of Indian/World history) Above mentioned facts clearly give us an insight into the period when Rama was born. So those who claim that Rama is only a mythological character we are providing them some more proofs which will establish that before the advent of Christinity and Islam Rama was revered throughout out the world as an international cult figure.
LEGENDS OF RAMAYANA IN VARIOUS PARTS OF GLOBE
1) RAMAYANA IN RUSSIA AND MANGOLIA:-
The Deccan Herald, dtd 15 dec 1972, at its front page gave a news which states that in Elista, capital of Kalmyk in Russia, story relating to Ramayana had been published. The news further states that various legends of Ramayana are popular among people of Kalmyk. Various version of Ramayana are already stored in libraries in Kalmyk. The news clearly states that legends of Ramayana are very popular since time immemorial. Domodin Suren, a Russian writer, has compiled various legends popular among Mongolian and Kalmyk peoples. Prof C F Glostunky's manuscript 'Academy of sciences' is stored at Siberian Branch of erstwhile U S S R. That book deals with various legends popular along the coast of Volga river. This manuscript is in Kalmyk language. In Leningrad also various books dealing with stories of Ramayana in Russian and Mongolian languages are preserved.
2) RAMAYANA IN CHINA:-
In china, collection of Jatak stories relating various events of Ramayana, belonging to 251 AD. were compiled by KANG_SENG_HUA . Another book, of 742 AD, relating story of plight of Dasratha after Rama was ordered to go for Vanvasa is still found in China. Similarly in 1600 AD, His-Yii-Chii wrote a novel with title Kapi (monkey) dwelling on the stories of Ramayana, predominantly that of Hanuman.
3) RAMAYANA IN SRILANKA:-
Naresh Kumar Dhatusena alias Kumardasa, who ruled Srilanka in 617 AD wrote 'Janakiharan'. This is the oldest Sanskrit literature available in Srilanka. In Modern times C Don Bostean and Jhon d'silva have written stories based on Ramayana. Till today majority of population adore and revere Rama and Sita.
4) RAMAYANA IN COMBODIA(KAMPUCHIA):-
Various rock inscription belonging to 700 AD are found in Khmer region of Cambodia. These rock inscription are based on stories of Ramayana. Various temples constructed during the reign of Khmer dynasty depicts the story of Ramayana on their walls. The temples of Angkor are very famous for the stories of Ramayana and Mahabharata. These temples belong to the earlier part of 400 AD to 700 AD. One astonishing fact in these engraved pictures is that Hanuman and rest other Vanars are not shown with tail as against the popular belief of masses. (Whether Hanuman etc are monkeys, this issue will be dealt latter)
5) RAMAYANA IN INDONESIA:-
According to De Casperis, there was a temple named 'Chandi loro jongrong' which has stories of Ramayana engraved on its walls. This temple was of 9th century AD. In Indonesia another version of stories of Ramayana named Kakavin is very popular. This story was bit different from that of Prambanan. Besides that various other version of Ramayana stories were very popular in early centuries after christ which itself proves that Ramayana was very popular among Indonesian people before advent of Islam. It is also an astonishing fact that first international convention on Ramayana was organized in Indonesia few years back.
6) RAMAYANA IN LAOS:-
When the local people pronounce Laos in their language it phonetically sounds like the name of one of the sons of Rama. Besides remains of temples of Vat- she-fum and Vat-pa-Kev depict the story of Ramayana on their walls. Whereas temples of Vat-pra-kev and Vat-sisket are having books containing epic of Ramayana. Lafont, French traveler translated story of 'Pa laka-Pa lama' in his book named P'ommachak in french. This book also deals with story of Ramayana popular among masses of Laos.
7) RAMAYANA IN THAILAND:-
Stories of Ramayana are still very popular among masses. In early centuries after Christ many kings who have Rama as either prefix or suffix in their name ruled this country. Just as we organize play of Ramayana in India, similarly various dramatic versions or Ramayana are oraganised in Thailand till today. Similar dramatic versions of Ramayana are still organized in various south-east asian countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Combodia etc.
8) RAMAYANA IN MALAYSIA:-
In Malaysia till today plays are oraganised based on the stories of 'HIKAYAT SERI RAMA' ,written in 14 century AD,. Dalang society organize nearly 200-300 plays relating to Ramayana. Before commencement of the play people conduct various prayers and ablutions revering RAMA and SITA.
9) RAMAYANA IN BURMA:- King Kayanjhitha who reigned during 1084 –
1112 AD; regarded as descendant of clan of Rama. Various books relating to the stories of Ramayana as early as 15 century AD are still found in Burma. Books like 'Kavyadarsh' , 'Subhasit Ratanidhi' are based on the stories of Ramayana. Zhang-Zhungpa, commentary of Ramayana was written by Taranath, which is not available in modern times. In Burma also various form of plays are conducted based on the stories of Ramayana.
10) RAMAYANA IN NEPAL:-
Oldest version of Ramayana, belonging ot 1075 AD is still found in Nepal.
11) RAMAYANA IN PHILIPINES:-
Effect of stories of Ramayana can easily be felt in the customs, traditions and legends of majority of masses. Prof Juon R Francisco found that among Marineo Muslims, legend based on Ramayana is popular, in which Rama has been depicted as Incarnation of God. Similarly among Magindanao or Sulu folk Muslims also various legends based on the stories of Ramayana are popular.
12) RAMAYANA IN IRAN:
In Hyderabad city, capital of Andhra Pradesh, there is museum named Salarjung. There one portrait is depicting a burly monkey having a very big stone in its hand. This portrait reminds one of Hanuman holding Dronagiri. Similarly Marco Polo in his book (translated by Sir Henry Yule in English) wrote at page no 302, vol II about a peculiar belief among Muslims, spread from Afganistan to Morocco and Algeria. These Muslims believed that members of imperial house of Trebizond were endowed with short tails while mediavel continentals had similar stories about Englishmen as- Mathew Paris relates…. ; We are of the belief that if one seriously starts investigating various legends prevalent, before advent of Islam and Christianity, in Arabic countries and European countries then existence of Ramayana and Mahabharta can be proved. Due to barbaric and dogmatic acts of these peoples a wide range of literature and buildings of historical importance has been wiped out.
13) RAMAYANA IN EUROPE:
In Italy, when excavation were carried out in the remains of Astrocon civilization, then various houses were found having peculiar type of paintings on their wall. These paintings, on closer investigation, seems to be based on the stories of Ramayana. Some of the paintings shows peculiar persons having tails along with two men bearing bows and arrows on their shoulders, while a lady is standing besides them. These paintings are of 7 century BC. It should be remembered that once Astrocon civilization was spread over 75 pct of Italy.
Sir Henry Yule in his translation of works of Marcopolo has referred to the belief prevalent among Medival Europeans that their Ancestors were having small tails. The same fact has been referred by Maharishi Dayanand in his magnum opus 'Satyarth Prakash'. There Swamiji states that people of Europe were called as Vanaras (monkeys) , due to their appearance in our epic like Mahabharta, Valmiki Ramayana etc. If we analyse this statement in present context, then how are we going to define various statements like kangaroos (Australian team) meet men in blue (Indian team) at Calcutta.
Similar sort of epithets were used during World war to describe armies of different countries or else we see that we have helicopters named cheetah etc. As these words (epithets) are just a way to describe different sets of people, arms etc, similarly words like Rakshas, Vanaras etc were used in our legends. These facts clearly indicates that legends of Ramayana are not work of fiction and were very popular around the world.
14) RAMAYANA IN AFRICA (CONTINENT):
People of Ethiopia call themselves as descendents of Cushites. This word Cush is basically phonectic misnomer of Kush, the son of Rama. This fact is verly established by Satpath Brahamans, commentary on Vedas. These Brahamans while explaining various mantras of Vedas uses many histrorical events to elucidate the topic.
Astonishingly in Satpath Brahaman we find reference regarding the rule of King Bharata (predecessor of Kaurav and Pandavs) in Rhodesia .
Besides many inconsistent legends inspired by epic of Ramayana are prevalent in African Communities and they basically refers to various activities of vanars.
Egypt basically derives its name from Ajpati which is one of the names of forefather of Rama. If we analyse various legends prevalent in Egypt there we will found references of Dasratha (father of Rama). These facts can be very well established from various historical references of Brahamans (for the proof of it see our article Blunders of Indian/World history)
15) RAMAYANA IN NORTH AMERICAN AND SOUTH AMERICAN CONTINENTS:
Before Columbus discovered North American continent European people were not knowing about it. However A DE QNATREFAGES in his book, THE HUMAN SPECIES, categorically says that Chinese people were aware about the American continent and they used to have trade relations with them. America was referred as Fad-Sang. Similarly in Japanese people it was known as Fad-See. Similarly, if we refer to various historical reference in Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana etc we will find that American continent has been reffered as Patal Desh (Patal means below foot). If we geographically see then we will find that American continent is just below the Indian Subcontinent. We will throw greater light on this issue in our topic, BLUNDERS OF INDIAN HISTORY/WORLD HISTORY.
But for your reference we are providing you some prevalent legends.
a) beautiful girl in Mexican tribal area till today are called as Ulopy. If we see in Mahabharata we find reference of Arjuna marrying a girl named Ulopy who was daughter of King of Patal Desh.
b) W H Prescott in his book , ' History of conquest of Mexico', provides various references which prove that earlier civilization of American subcontinent have major similarities with that of Indian (Aryan) civilization.
However here we are providing you one reference which clearly state that Ramayana is not mythological epic but it bears historical testimony. According to writer of the book there is popular legend in Aztec community which states that a beautiful person named Quevtsal Katal came there from east and taught them various aspects of advanced civilization; as a result his period was treated as golden era. He then went back to his original homeland because of persecution by some divine creature. This legend surprisingly does not throw light on the reasons why he returned.
Another interesting fact that has been stated by Prescott is that this legend is available in documented form. Now, none except Indian tradition can claim that they bear root to this legend. The same story has been narrated in Valmiki Ramayana, in uttarkand where it is mentioned that Salkantak Rakshas who dwelled in Lanka were persecuted by Vishnu. Due to this persecution they left Lanka and went to Patal Desh. The leader of this group was Sumali. According to Ramayana they lived in Patal Desh for long time. When they found condition congenial they returned to their homeland.
It is for readers to decide when such conclusive proof are there to establish that epic of Ramayana is not mythological legend but it is historical evidence which bears testimony to various legends prevalent around the world. Till today play named Ramasitotav is
played in various communities of Mexico. To our amazement Rama has been mentioned in Bible, new testament, Mathew ch 2/18, where it is mentioned " his voices was heard in RAMA". Rama is proper noun there, now it is for biblical society to define who was Rama and why he has been mentioned in Bible.
Even the name of Dasratha and Ayodhya are there in Bible. We will be referring to these facts in Blunders of Indian/world History.
Now we would pose some tickling questions to the historians:
1) Why month of fasting among muslims is called Ramadhan ?
2) Why place in Gazastrip is called Ramallaha ?
3) Why place in London is named as Ramsgate ?
4) Why capital of Italy is known as Rome(misnomer of Rama)
We can provide various examples where word Rama has been used as suffix or prefix with the names of various historical places/persons or misnomer of Rama has been used as name for historical places/persons. None of the historical evidence provides conclusive answer to these facts unless we take Indian historical evidences into account.
In our article ' Blunders of Indian/World history ' we will provide proof for it. We also believe that if barabaric religions like Christinity and Islam had not gained popularity then we would have more data to prove our point conclusively. These two semetic religions have inflicted unparrelled havoc on historical data and buildings. They destroyed all the libraries/monuments of historical importance which did not conform to their beliefs.
Still we have lot with us and we can recreate correct chronological data of world history. It is widely accepted that the King Alexander invaded India. It really sounds ironical that we are accepting this theory without any historical evidence, on the other hand we go on to deny existence of Rama despite various historical evidences are there to prove that he was not mythical but a historical Mahanayak.
These historians in order to defy Rama's existence are ridiculously harping on the same old tone of theory of evolution which does not have any scientific proof. (Why and how theory of evolution gained importance will be dealt in our article How the universe is created. The only thing of significance regarding theory of evolution, we want to state here is that it was a tool which was invented to challenge the anarchaic/draconian supremacy of church. The church use to claim that this world was created by God out of nothing and the age of this Univerese is not more than 10000 years. By the help of evolutionary theory scientific world challenged the supremacy of church and overcame the clergy.)
This is for readers to decide by themselves how they are going to treat Rama. We think that we have provided lot of food for thought. Those who are illogically biased may still refute the existence of Rama while those who are logical and believe that mythological character can never gain such world-wide respect/reverence will start looking upon Rama from wider historical evidences.
Here we want to clarify following points:
1) Rama was not an incarnation of God but he was Mahanayak, a legendary person who lived a pristine life and is an example to be emulated till today.
2) Ramasetu, on which lot of controversy is being created, might not be built by Rama as the period of Rama is at least 10,00,000 years. During this time geographical conditions has changed drastically.
3) Valmiki Ramayana is not fiction but an epic based on historical evidence. We can analyze the issue of Ramasetu only on the basis of environmental/economical viability.
For those who are questioning existence of Rama, let them first justify wether their forefathers ever existed, by using the same yardstick which they are using for existence of Rama.